AREDN hits the 2019-2023 General Class Question Pool

From a recent post on the AREDN website (www.arednmesh.org), Joe AE6XE calls our attention to a new question in the General class license examination question pool which refers to Amateur Radio Emergency Data Network (AREDN) mesh network transmissions. There may be a problem with correctly answering this question.

Here is what Joe has to say:

G1E08 (B) [97.313(j)]
When using modified commercial Wi-Fi equipment to construct an Amateur Radio Emergency Data Network (AREDN), what is the maximum allowed PEP transmitter output power?
A. 100 milliwatts
B. 10 watts
C. 100 watts
D. 1500 watts

Part 97.313(j): No station may transmit with a transmitter output exceeding 10 W PEP when the station is transmitting a SS emission type.

Ah’o… AREDN devices or commercial Wi-Fi equipment predominately do not transmit spread spectrum signals.

The following standards are in use:

802.11b: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum in 22MHz BW
802.11a: OFDM — 64 modulated carrier waves in 20MHz BW
802.11g: OFDM — 64 modulated carrier waves in 20MHz BW
802.11n: OFDM — 64 modulated carrier waves in 20MHz BW
802.11ac: OFDM (future use by AREDN)

What is the part97 power limit of a Spread Spectrum signal in these bands = 10 watts
What is the part97 power limit of OFDM or modulated carrier waves in these bands = 1500 watts

What is used on these devices?

A) on 2GHz and 900MHz devices, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n are used.
B) on 5GHz and 3GHz device, 802.11a and 802.11n are used.

What does this mean? Predominately, AREDN devices do not use Spread Spectrum (SS) modulation (802.11b). AREDN 3GHz and 5GHz devices only use 802.11a and 802.11n or OFDM with 1500 watt limit. On 2GHz and 900MHz SS is generally only used for beacons, broadcast packets, and management frames. All the data ends up using the higher rates in 802.11n. Any given transmitted frame could be using a different modulation scheme, rate, and error correction code than the prior transmitted frame.

While there are 2 answers to this question, the more correct, or more prominently in use, would be ‘D’. But this misses the intention of a question for 97.313(j)…

Joe AE6XE

Ref: https://www.qsl.net/kb9mwr/projects/wireless/pwr.html

 

Advertisements
Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

ICOM 756proII for sale by Tony, N2SIQ

I am selling my Icom 756proII mint condition with box/manuals, etc.   Everything as it would come new from factory. I am asking $1100 but for FLARC club members ONLY $800.

I can demo it at my house if you’d like.

CLICK HERE for a pic of the radio.
Works perfectly.

Here’s a real short movie clip of it operating – CLICK HERE

My cell is 201 232 2152.

73’s Tony N2SIQ   n2siq@optonline.net / tonyg125@gmail.com

Posted in For Sale, Swap and Shop | Leave a comment

Dxers Unlimited weekend edition for Sunday 23 December 2018

By Arnie Coro  radio amateur CO2KK

Hola amigos all around the world…. season’s greetings wishing you all a  very nice and prosperous year 2019, approching us in just a few days.. I am your host, Arnaldo, Arnie Coro, radio amateur CO2KK now ready to bring you about 10 minutes of all radio hobby related information… Including today a short form HF propagation forecast valid for the first three months of 2019…

Item one: “Solar minimum conditions are in effect,The Sun has been without sunspots for 211 days in 2018 — that is, 60 percent of the time. To find a similar stretch of blank Suns, you have to go back to 2009 when the Sun was experiencing the deepest solar minimum in a century.”

Now item two: Low power amateur radio enthusiasts have made significant contributions to the state of the art in short wave propagation research and in the design and construction of low cost transceivers that are able to compete with very expensive commercial radios… QRP operators have also created internet mailing lists aiming at making all recent experiences available and open up to very fruitful discussions and analysis. My good friends Jorge Delgado callsign CO2BG and Alberto Cruz callsign CO2AJ are examples of how to improve operating skills, train newcomers to the hobby, and make use of advanced communications software packages like FT8 and JT65…

Jorge CO2BG is currently helping a group of radio amateurs that live in the south part of Havana to build low power CW rigs, using currently available parts… I already advised him about the use as radio frequency power amplifiers stages of the NPN silicon transistors that provide the drive to the cathode ray color picture tubes… Each recycled color TV or computer monitor is a zero cost source of the power devices that work on frequencies up to the 20 meters band providing power outputs of around 10 Watts by each pair of push pull connected devices… making them ideal for QRP rigs final amplifier stages…

Amateur radio operators worldwide have the possibility of contacting with fellow hams that are part of the crew at the International Space Station… For a standard two way voice contact on the two meters band using narrow band FM voice mode, a simple antenna and even a handheld FM transceiver will make possible to talk to the astronauts on their parking spot frequency of 145 dot eight hundred megaHertz…. Again the frequency where the ISS operates on the two meters amateur band is one four five dot eight zero zero mega Hertz…

If you have a valid amateur radio license and install a simple ground plane vertical antenna connected to an FM two meters band radio transceiver , contacting the ISS is rather easy, because it will always be a line of sight two way communications link, of a path length of around 400 kilometers or so….

A successful cargo mission sent to the International Space Station included ham radio packet equipment that is awaiting unpacking by the spaceship crew.

The American Radio Relay League reports new Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) packet equipment awaits unpacking and installation on board the station after arriving in November as part of the cargo transported via a Russian 71P Progress resupply vehicle.

The new packet module for NA1SS will replace the current packet gear, which has been intermittent over the past year.

“With the arrival of Progress complete, the crew has to find free time to unpack Progress, uninstall the intermittent module, and then set up and test the replacement packet module,”

The ISS packet system was reported to have gone down in July 2017, although it unexpectedly came back to life the following summer. At the time of the failure, NASA ISS Ham Radio Project Engineer Kenneth Ransom, N5VHO, said the revived system would fill the gap until the replacement packet module was launched and installed. The packet system operates on 145.825 MHz. ARISS hardware team members on the ground were able to locate a functional duplicate of the ISS packet module that has been in use on the ISS for 17 years. ARISS said the subsequent installation will depend on the crew’s busy schedule.

Yes amigos, si my friends…. communicating with a spaceship’s crew in Earth Orbit is one of the more than 91 ways that we radio hobby fans can enjoy the experience of talking to an astronaut and then receiving a digital QSL confirmation of the contact… Also , I can assure you that using my 5 Watts output FM handie talkie, connected to a easily built ground plane antenna it is possible to establish successful contacts with the international space station…. You only need to become familiar with how to know when the ISS will be flying overhead and program your radio for 145 dot eight hundred megaHertz simplex. Monitor the frequency with the squelch set for maximum sensitivity and as soon as the ISS is on the air you will pick them up…. Good luck amigos and welcome to the select group of radio amateurs capable of contacting spaceships !!!

Ask Arnie, the second most popular section of this show, and for your information , the HF plus low band VHF propagation updates is the most reported one … Ask Arnie today is answering a question sent by listeners Jeff and Richard from the US state of Florida… They want to know what we would do during 2019 to deal with the year of minimum solar activity, especially on some propagation paths that have proven to be very difficult when the number of monthly sunspots go below 10…

ANSWER: You are both right amigos, as we enter the deep minimum of solar cycle 24 all short wave propagation of signals above 14 to 15 megaHertz will become very difficult to provide reliable service. That is the reason why users of the HF frequency spectrum have moved down their operations for daytime services below 15 megaHertz, and at night the winter season makes it very difficult to provide services on frequencies even as low as six megaHertz….. So here is my advice — get ready to deal with the very low maximum usable frequencies by building a medium sized magnetic loop antenna of a diameter around two meters, or if you have lots of space available then your best option is to install a long wire end fed antenna , or an inverted L antenna …

And now amigos at the end of the program, here is an advanced report of what the solar activity will be during the first month of 2019… In very easy to understand plain language, solar activity will be very low, with the daily solar flux figure hovering at around 70 units, just barely a few units from baseline activity of a totally quiet Sun typical of the end of the 11 year average duration solar cycle.

Send your signal reports, comments about our programs and radio hobby related questions to inforhc at enet dot cu. And via air mail to Arnie Coro, Radio Havana Cuba, Havana , Cuba

Posted in DXers Unlimited radio program, Ham News, News | Leave a comment

LotW [Logbook of the World] now has more than ONE BILLION QSOs!

https://wb4son.com/wpblog/?p=3548

 

Posted in Ham News, News | Leave a comment

Dxers Unlimited’s WEEKEND edition for Sunday 16 December 2018

By Arnie Coro
radio amateur CO2KK

Hola amigos radioaficionados now listening to the weekend edition of Dxers Unlimited, I am your host Arnaldo, Arnie, Coro, radio amateur CO2KK wishing you all good reception of the week end edition of this radio hobby show .

QSL . QSL , YES…. QSL on the air to the many listeners that have sent signal reports and comments to inforhc at enet dot cu….. some of the reports have also included  mp3 audio files attached to the email messages… Those audio files allow our engineers to appreciate exactly how the station is heard by listeners using our short wave broadcasts.. No doubts that an mp3 audio file  is the most objective form of reporting the quality of reception amigos !

QSL on the air to listener Claudio Galaz who sent a very interesting report from his location in Chile… Claudio tuned in to the 60 meters tropical band frequency of 5040 kiloHertz and he tells us  that the signal, although weak, was easy to listen to because the 5040 kiloHertz is on a very clear channel… By the way I am going too ask Claudio to also monitor Radio Rebelde on 5025 kiloHertz and compare the two signals that originate with the same power of 50 kiloWatts from the Bauta RadioCuba transmitting station… Claudio also compared the reception of the RHC frequencies beamed to South America on 11700 kiloHertz, with 250 kiloWatts and 11840 kiloHertz, also using 250 kiloWatts and identical HR 4 dash 4 dash 1 dot zero high gain curtain arrays… sent from the San Felipe transmitting station located in Mayabeque province, south of the city of Havana….

Item one :  Solar activity update… yes MORE bad news, because more than 60 percent of the days of this year 2018 went by without a single sunspot IN SIGHT… From January first of this year and up to December 14, sunspots have been missing for 206 days… and this for sure a fact that continues to sustain the point of view shared by many heliophysicists that solar cycle 24 minimum is now reaching the lowest expected number of sunspots.

A monthly update reminder comes from Belgium… where the  Royal Observatory confirms the Provisional International monthly mean Sunspot Number for November 2018 : 5.9 (five point nine) , again 5.9  ie the provisional international monthly mean Sunspot number for the month of November…. This very accurate data about solar activity confirms that cycle 24 is very near its minimum and I may add that more small reverse polarity sunspots are expected from now on. They should appear at higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere of the Sun and show a reverse magnetic polarity that identifies them from solar cycle 24 sunspots that are located now near the solar equator.

Cuban radio amateurs are enjoying now the use of three antennas manufactured in Cuba and sold at a not for profit price by the Cuban Federation of Radio Amateurs… The most popular model is a zero db gain omnidirectional J pole antenna that has proven to provide excellent service as well as supporting hurricane force winds last year. The other two Cuban designed and built antennas are a three elements 6 dB gain yagi…. and the other one a six elements Yagi optimized for maximum forward gain that is the favorite antenna among FM 2 meters Dxers.

Yes amigos, two meters band FM mode Dxing is becoming popular in some parts of the world where the availability of multi mode transceivers is simply zero… But, FM mobile units and handie talkies are plentiful, something that makes possible to install better antennas and attempt to try to work far away stations that are not normally available using low gain omnidirectional antennas. Here in Cuba the 2 meters band is the most used, due to the availability of transceivers used by the professional users within the frequency range between 140 and 160 megaHertz that can be rather easily reprogrammed using a computer-to-radio interface and the proper software. Some handie talkies are also good candidates for the software conversion making it possible to operate on the 144 to 148 megaHertz frequency range.

When connected to a vertically polarized Yagi antenna of at least three elements, the operating range achieved extends well past the typical area that is normally  used for effective communications with  the FM narrow-band voice mode. The main use of the 2 meters band here in Cuba is for local and semi-local contacts… with many radio clubs holding weekly round tables on previously announced frequencies, something that has proven  to be very useful to keep club members informed about relevant activities and also to provide excellent practice for emergency communications

From La Habana Cuba this is the the weekend edition of Dxers Unlimited, and here is our next item… Requests about the circuit diagrams and building instructions for the ever popular Arnie Coro’s regenerodyne receiver radio keep coming… There are two versions of my  regenerodyne receiver… one is built using vacuum tubes and one is a hybrid circuit that uses vacuum tubes and solid state devices…. The current circuit diagrams also include a design that uses a quartz crystal to feed the mixer with a high stability injection frequency, while another version uses a Franklyn type of self excited local oscillator that is very stable.

Send your request for any of the circuits diagrams in our collection to inforhc at enet dot cu…… Also requests and questions related to my Super Islander Mark Six  direct conversion short wave receiver keep coming in to my email inforhc at enet dot cu…. and as soon as they are received, it takes just a few seconds to send the electronic reply via the Internet…

By the way listeners that have built the different versions of my regenerodyne radio have used them to  form part of a more complex amateur bands transceiver tell me that the project was an easy going task that could be built using standard available parts.

This is Radio Havana Cuba, the name of the program is Dxers Unlimited and it is on the air twice every week, promoting the enjoyment of this wonderful hobby…

Now more tips about operating simple home brew receivers like the Regenderodyne and the Super Islander Mark Six.  Yes amigos, let me add this important advice… I do insist about the fact that using a battery power supply is essential for optimum performance  of any solid state receiver .

Here is now ASK ARNIE, the most popular section of this program with the reply to the question sent by listener Hugo from Hamburg , Germany, who listens to this show via the streaming audio available from http://www.radiohc…… he wants to know more about how to test recycled parts that he has collected from several sources for the past several years…. ANSWER: Well amigo Hugo, for testing resistors you only need a good quality digital multi-meter…. For testing capacitors you will need not one but several different test instruments … testing electrolytic capacitors requires the use of a special instrument that measures the capacitor’s equivalent series resistance, so by using a table of normal values of the electrolytic capacitors of different capacity and voltage ratings, you can discard the bad ones easily…. For measuring inductances now it is possible to buy a new type of digital instrument that provides very accurate measurements of inductances of a very wide range of values.

See you all at the middle of the week  edition on the air Tuesday and Wednesday UTC amigos, just after the half hour news bulletin here at Radio Havana Cuba . Send your signal reports, QSL requests and radio hobby related questions to inforhc at enet dot cu or Via Air Mail to Arnie Coro Radio Havana Cuba, Havana, Cuba.

Posted in DXers Unlimited radio program, Ham News, News | Leave a comment

Northern Westchester Pirate Radio Broadcaster Busted By Federal Investigators

TNX to Pete KD2MBX for this:

https://poundridge.dailyvoice.com/news/northern-westchester-pirate-radio-broadcaster-busted-by-federal-investigators/745673/

 

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Dxers Unlimited’s WEEKEND edition for Sunday 9 December 2018

By Arnie Coro
radio amateur CO2KK

Hola amigos radioaficionados now listening to the weekend edition of Dxers Unlimited. I am your host Arnaldo, Arnie, Coro, radio amateur CO2KK wishing you excellent reception of this, the week end edition of this program .

QSL on the air to the many listeners that have sent signal reports and comments to inforhc at enet dot cu….. We do appreciate the recent reports that have also included mp3 audio files attached to the email messages… That is the most objective form of reporting the quality of reception amigos !

QSL on the air to Paul Brown from Canada who sent an mp3 file and a photo of the screen of his transceiver that show excellent reception of our 6000 kiloHertz 49 meters band frequency using our 010 degrees azimuth curtain antenna array.

Solar activity update…. 60 percent of the days of this year 2018 went by without a single sunspot… A fact that continues to sustain the point of view shared by many heliophysicists that solar cycle 24 minimum is now reaching the lowest expected number of sunspots….

A reminder comes from Belgium… where the  Royal Observatory confirms the Provisional International monthly mean Sunspot Number for November 2018 : 5.9 (five point nine) , again 5.9 …. This very accurate data about solar activity confirms that cycle 24 is very near its minimum and I may add that more small reverse polarity sunspots are expected from now on

Yes amigos , there are more than 91 well documented different ways of enjoying the radio hobby, and here I am to tell you about some of them today. Two meters band FM mode Dxing is becoming popular in some parts of the world where the availability of multi mode transceivers is simply zero… But, FM mobile units and handie talkies are plentiful, something that makes possible to install better antennas and attempt to try to work far away stations that are not normally available using low gain omnidirectional antennas.

Here in Cuba the 2 meters band is the most used, due to the availability of transceivers used by the professional users within the frequency range between 140 and 160 megaHertz that can be rather easily reprogrammed using a computer to radio interface and the proper software. Some handie talkies are also good candidates for the software conversion making it possible to operate on the 144 to 148 megaHertz frequency range. When connected to a vertically polarized Yagi antenna of at least three elements, the operating range achieved extends well past the typical area that is normally  used for effective communications with  the FM narrowband voice mode.

Using advanced complex Yagi antenna arrays of between 10 and 40 elements , FM 2 meter band Dxers participate in many contests, and are able to link up via far away repeaters…..The main use of the 2 meters band here in Cuba is for local and semi-local contacts… with many radio clubs holding weekly round tables on previously announced frequencies, something that are very useful to keep club members informed about relevant activities and also provide excellent practice for emergency communications.

From La Habana Cuba this is the the weekend edition of Dxers Unlimited, and here is our next item…

Requests about the circuit diagrams and building instructions for the ever popular Australian regenerative solid state radio keep coming… The name of that simple receiver is the MOORABIN— Send your request for any of the circuit diagrams in our collection to inforhc at enet dot cu……

Also receiving  requests and questions related to my Super Islander Mark Six  direct conversion short wave receiver keep coming in to my email inforhc at enet dot cu…. and as soon as they are received, it takes just a few seconds to send the electronic reply via the Internet…

By the way listeners that have built the different versions of this receiver, that forms part as a module of a more complex amateur bands transceiver, tell me that the project was an easy going task that could be built using standard available parts.

This is Radio Havana Cuba, the name of the program is Dxers Unlimited and it is on the air twice every week, promoting the enjoyment of this wonderful hobby… Now more tips about operating simple home brew receivers like the MOORABIN and the Super Islander Mark Six.  Yes amigos, I do insist about the fact that using a battery power supply is essential for optimum performance  of any solid state receiver and there are no exceptions.

Here is now ASK ARNIE , the most popular section of this program with the reply to the question sent by listener Michael from Edinburgh , Scotland….. he wants to know more about how to find the sources of radio frequency noise that are making his reception of the AM medium wave band simply impossible . Well amigo Michael you are just one more of the millions of listeners that are having difficulties picking up stations operating within the frequency range of 530 to 1700 kiloHertz that is assigned for the AM medium wave broadcast band…

In the Americas stations use 10 kiloHertz channel spacing, while other parts of the world use 9 kiloHertz for separation between stations… With the advent of many different home electronics and electrical equipment using the switched mode power supplies, the situation regarding the baseline noise level between 100 kiloHertz and 10 megaHertz has increased significantly . So my number one advice for you amigo Michael is to check for the presence of any electronic or electrical device that may be the source of harmful interference…. because it may be using a switched mode power supply.

This can be done by exploring your house using a portable AM receiver tuned to the low frequency region, listening to an empty channel as you move around each room. In actual practice you may also just disconnect the electricity circuit breakers one by one while listening to the AM sniffer radio…. You do not need to be a radio Sherlock Holmes to locate at least a few of the interference makers that are within the affected area, including computers, cellphone chargers, automatic furnace controls, TV sets and even a fish tank pump…

Helping a local radio amateur to find what was making his 40 meters band full of very intense signal, we found that the ADSL modem was the culprit… In an upcoming program, I will give advice on how to deal with today’s most impacting problem affecting our radio hobby …. dealing with devices that generate radio frequency interference.

See you all at the middle of the week  edition on the air Tuesday and Wednesday UTC amigos, just after the half hour news bulletin here at Radio Havana Cuba . Send your signal reports, QSL requests and radio hobby related questions to inforhc at enet dot cu or Via Air Mail to rnie Coro Radio Havana Cuba, Havana , Cuba

Posted in DXers Unlimited radio program, Ham News, News | Leave a comment